Chapter 15. The Ten Virtue Perfection

The 10 Virtues Perfection

The Equation of Perfections


Virtues or Essences to be Perfected (V)

In order to attain Buddhahood and Arahantship or Buddhist Sainthood, it is necessary that one has to commit good deeds for many lifetimes as the cultivation of virtues.  These virtues are essential Dharma which co-crystallise altogether with elemental merit energy.  Altogether, they can enable the eradication of mental impurities or defilements when one’s mind reaches the state of magga unification as well as the willingness to uproot the impurities in one’s mind.

Mainly, there are 10 virtues namely:

(a) Generosity (b) Moral Discipline (c) Renunciation or Contentment (d) Wisdom or Comprehendability (e) Endurance (f) Patience (g) Truthfulness (h) Resolution or Determination (i) Compassion and (j) Equanimity.

Merit Energy or Co-Crystallising Elements (M)

Indeed, the 10 virtues are merit energy differentiated according to their quality.  For example, Generosity and Determination are both merit, but we can feel the difference of their quality when we give Christmas gifts (Generosity) and do prayer (Determination).

As we practice the 10 aforesaid virtues, we earn merit energy which coexists with virtues.  Over time, as the meritorious deeds are repeated for a long period of time, the merit energy which is dominated by virtues become crystallized or ‘perfected.’  This is similar to baking a loaf of bread where the mass of flour needs appropriate heat and time to become fully baked.

Timing of Cultivation (T)

The timings for crystallization or perfected virtues are as follows:

(1)             100,000 sub-eons for common Arahantship or full Buddhist sainthood

(2)            1.1 eons for specialty Arahantship

(3)            2.1 eons for Silent-Buddhahood (doesn’t establish Buddhism)

(4)            20.1 eons for wisdom-oriented Buddhahood (establish Buddhism)

(5)            40.1 eons for faith-oriented Buddhahood (establish Buddhism)

(6)            80.1 eons for perseverance-oriented Buddhahood (establish Buddhism)

Commitment (L) & Intensity of Commitment (n)

The commitment in pursuit of virtues perfection distinguish how strong one’s willpower is in cultivation.

For general willpower to cultivate virtues, the intensity is valued as n1 = 1

For a stronger willpower with the willingness to sacrifice one’s blood, flesh, and organ to cultivate virtues, the intensity is valued as n2 = 2

For the strongest willpower when one is willing to sacrifice one’s life to cultivate virtues, the intensity is valued as n3 = 3

The Equation of Perfections

Our equation of perfections shows how the aforesaid factors interrelate each other in the process of perfecting virtues.  First of all, it is the PLn which represents the Perfections or Parami at a level where ‘n’ can be either 1 or 2 or 3.

Next, there is the value of virtues (V) divided by merit energy (M) which shows the fractional relationship how the qualitative essence or dharma is crystallised upon the elemental merit energy, over the power of (T) which is the period of cultivation, as the product increases in manifold over time.

Lastly, the fraction is in the root of Ln where the more intensity of ‘Ln’ means the more or less condensation of virtues perfection corresponding to such PLn.

Graphing the Perfections Diagram

According to our diagram, we can graph our 10 Virtues Perfection relatively to (1) Type of Virtue or ‘x’ (2) Level of Effort or ‘y’ and (3) Duration of Time or ‘T’.  Firstly, we have to figure out the level of effort or ‘y’ for each virtue or ‘x’, then we can plot the graph whereas the inner ring is for the cultivation period of 20 eons, 40 eons, and 80 eons, respectively for Wisdom-Oriented Cultivation, Faith-Oriented Cultivation, and Perseverance-Oriented Cultivation.

In addition, we also have the simple equation in relationship with the diagram as follows:

10 Virtues Cultivation = (xay+xby+xcy+xdy+xey+xfy+xgy+xhy+xiy+xjy) x Time


Effort or ‘y’

= 3 for Dedication of Life

= 2 for Dedication of Self

= 1 for Regular Dedication

Time or ‘T’

= 80.1 [asaṅkheyyaṁ or Eons] for Perseverance-Oriented One

= 40.1 [asaṅkheyyaṁ or Eons] for Faith-Oriented One

= 20.1 [asaṅkheyyaṁ or Eons] for Wisdom-Oriented One

Note: asaṅkheyyaṁ = 1 + 140 zeroes


Souce of studying on pali numbering:


© By Pirajak S. (Pittaya Wong)

First Version: 3 August 2018

Second Version: 31 August 2020