Chapter 23. The Four Brahma Virtues

The Four Brahma Virtues comprise of:

(1)  Compassion (Metta)

(2)  Mercy (Karuna)

(3)  Sympathetic Joy (Mudhita)

(4)  Equanimity (Upekkha)

The Four Brahma Virtues are the four basic virtues in Buddhist teachings which connote that the Brahmas who are celestial beings have these four qualities.  Although the virtues seem to be simple and uncomplicated, the virtues establish good mental foundation, either in meditative or non-meditative state, that enables further development of mind.  Especially, in meditative state, the mental quality of the Four Brahma Virtues can promote levels of jhana or meditative absorption which can allow magga-unification and enable enlightenment. 

However, ones may have more or less of either one or more of the four virtues as the virtues can give rise to each other, but this is not always true because they are separated and independent qualities.

According to our graph, the sum of the Four Brahma Virtues equals to Metta + Karuna + Mudhita + Upekkha where the intensity of each virtue is plotted on the graph axis and lined to each other to show that the larger areas formed by plots and lines can reflect the more or less of the Four Brahma Virtues.


By Pirajak T. Suwapatdecha (formerly Pittaya Wong)

18 June 2020