Chapter 46: The Graph & Equation of Jhana

Graph & Equation of 

Meditative Absorption (jhana)


Jhana is one of the Lord Buddha’s teachings which explains the natural phenomena of one’s mind when achieving ‘deep meditative calmness’ occurring upon the ceasing of five mental hindrances namely (1) sensual desire (2) ill-will (3). drowsiness, sloth and torpor (4) wandering mind & anxiety and (5) doubt & hesitance.  The practice of jhana has predated the Lord Buddha’s establishment of Buddhism but without a successful enlightenment.  Jhana or meditative absorption can be classified into different levels (1 to 4 material jhana and 5 to 8 immaterial jhana), and they are the state of mind which are, more or less, appropriate for magga-unification which can enable full enlightenment if practitioner has fulfilled the required cultivation of perfection or parami.  Although jhana is a mental experience which many meditation masters try to explain when teaching their students, those who do not wish to take it as a religious practice may decline to learn or some may take it as something mystical and has certain stereotype about jhana meditation.  Hence, we would like to take this opportunity to explain jhana experience with dhammonomic tools whereby variables are identified to solve corresponding equations and plot a graph which may be helpful to simplify jhana learning to all people across the world who have adequate background in mathematics.  

    

First Meditative Material Absorption (First Rupa-Jhana)

Factors of the first meditative absorption (1st jhana)

(1) vitakka = applied thought: comprises of 44 vitakka-cetasika and 11 pathama-jhana-citta, totaling 55 mental faculties.

(2) vicara = sustained thought: comprises of 44 vicara-cetasika and 11 pathama-jhana-citta, totaling 55 mental faculties.

(3) piti = joy: comprises of 18 piti-cetasika, 11 pathama-jhana-citta, totaling 29 mental faculties.

(4) sukha = peaceful happiness: comprises of 62 somanas-vedana-cetasika, totaling 62 mental faculties.

(5) ekaggata = one-pointed concentration: comprises of 111 ekagatta-cetasika, totaling 111 mental faculties.


Second Meditative Material Absorption (Second Rupa-Jhana)

Factors of the second meditative absorption (2nd jhana)

(1) piti  = joy: comprises of 18 piti-cetasika, 11 pathama-jhana-citta, 11 dutiya-jhana-citta, totaling 40 mental faculties.

(2) sukha = peaceful happiness: comprises of 62 somanas-vedana-cetasika, totaling 62 mental faculties.

(3) ekaggata = one-pointed concentration: comprises of 111 ekagatta-cetasika, totaling 111 mental faculties.


Third Meditative Material Absorption (Third Rupa-Jhana)

Factors of the third meditative absorption (3rd jhana)

(1) sukha = peaceful happiness: comprises of 62 somanas-vedana-cetasika, totaling 62 mental faculties.

(2) ekaggata = one-pointed concentration: comprises of 111 ekagatta-cetasika, totaling 111 mental faculties.


Fourth Meditative Material Absorption (Fourth Rupa-Jhana)

Factors of the fourth meditative absorption (4th jhana)

(1) upekkha = equanimity: comprises of 47 upekkha-vedana-cetasika, totaling 47 mental faculties.

(2) ekaggata = one-pointed concentration: comprises of 111 ekagatta-cetasika, totaling 111 mental faculties.

 

Equation:

Hypothesis:  Increase in mental calm (samadhi) leads to the decrease and ceasing of five mental hindrances (nivarana), thus, gives rise to different levels of meditative absorption (jhana).

Jq  = Power of jhana

q = Level of jhana

J1 = Power of first jhana

J2 = Power of second jhana

J3 = power of third jhana

J4 = power of fourth jhana

r = Mental factors of each meditative absorption

v = variable = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

(rv)

r1 = vitakka

r2 = vicara

r3 = piti

r4 = sukha

r5 = ekaggata

r6 = upekkha

 

Equation of the First Jhana

J1 = vitakka + vicara + piti + sukha + ekaggata

J1 = ¶r12 + ¶r22 + ¶r32 + ¶r42 + ¶r52

r1 = Sum of 44 vitakka-cetasika and 11 pathama-jhana-citta

[mean value or (mr1) = r1÷ 55]

r2 = Sum of 44 vicara-cetasika and 11 pathama-jhana-citta

[mean value or (mr2) = r2÷ 55]

r3 = Sum of 18 piti-cetasika and 11 pathama-jhana-citta  

[mean value or (mr3) = r3÷ 29]

r4 = Sum of 62 somanas-vedana-cetasika  [mean value or (mr4) = 62]

r5 = Sum of 111 ekaggatta-cetasika  [mean value or (mr5) = 111]

 

Equation of the Second Jhana

J2 = piti + sukha + ekaggata

J2 = ¶r32 + ¶r42 + ¶r52

r3 = Sum of 18 piti-cetasika and 11 pathama-jhana-citta  

[mean value or (mr3) = r3÷ 29]

r4 = Sum of 62 somanas-vedana-cetasika  [mean value or (mr4) = 62]

r5 = Sum of 111 ekaggatta-cetasika  [mean value or (mr5) = 111]

 

Equation of the Third Jhana

J3 = sukha + ekaggata

J3 = ¶r42 + ¶r52

r4 = Sum of 62 somanas-vedana-cetasika  [mean value or (mr4) = 62]

r5 = Sum of 111 ekaggatta-cetasika  [mean value or (mr5) = 111]

 

Equation of the Fourth Jhana

J4 = upekkha + ekaggata

J4 = ¶r52 + ¶r62

r5 = Sum of 111 ekaggatta-cetasika  [mean value or (mr5) = 111]

r6 = Sum of 47 upekkha-vedana-cetasika  [mean value or (mr6) = 47]

 

Graphing:

Given the related variables and corresponding equations above, we can create a graph as follows:

Right hand x-axis represents ‘vicara’ where the value is always positive.

Left hand x-axis represents ‘sukha’ where the value is always positive.

Upper y-axis represents ‘vitakka’ where the value is always positive.

Lower y-axis represents ‘piti’ where the value is always positive.

The crossing point of x-axis and y-axis equals to zero and is the central point of ‘ekaggata’ and ‘upekkha’ at the same time.

To plot the graph, we first find ‘mr’ (mean values of r) from each equation of jhana and plot them onto each corresponding axis where r forms a radius of a circle giving an area of value of mental faculties.  Thus, the sum of all available areas equal to the power of jhana (Jq) at each level.

To conclude, jhana is a state of mind which many people find it hard to prove and measure.  However, with the available details on numbers of mental faculties taught by the Lord Buddha in abhidharma scripture, we have adequate information to render the doctrine with dhammonomic expression whereby equations can be derived and graphs can be accordingly plotted.  As such, it will be much easier to comprehend the phenomena of jhana and allow learners to find the approximate value to indicate the level and power of jhana from ones’ practices. 

 

By Pirajak Tisuthiwongse (Pittaya Wong)

Dhammonomics Inventor & Dharma Wizard

21 September 2022

www.Meditation101.org

 

 

Source of Study:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dhyana_in_Buddhism

https://abhidhamonline.org

Samatha & Vipassana Meditation by Phra Thepyanmongkol, Wat Luang Phor Sodh Dhammakayaram, Rachaburi Province, Thailand

https://84000.org